Found 9164 matches for
BACKGROUND: The use of gut feelings to guide clinical decision making in primary care has been frequently described but is not considered a legitimate reason for cancer referral. AIM: To explore the role that gut feeling plays in clinical decision making in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative interview study with 19 GPs in Oxfordshire, UK. METHOD: GPs who had referred patients to a cancer pathway based on a gut feeling as a referral criterion were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted between November 2019 and January 2020, and transcripts were analysed using the one sheet of paper method. RESULTS: Gut feeling was seen as an essential part of decision making that facilitated appropriate and timely care. GPs distanced their gut feelings from descriptions that could be seen as unscientific, describing successful use as reliant on experience and clinical knowledge. This was especially true for patients who fell within a 'grey area' where clinical guidelines did not match the GP's assessment of cancer risk, either because the guidance inadequately represented or did not include the patient's presentation. GPs sought to legitimise their gut feelings by gathering objective clinical evidence, careful examination of referral procedures, and consultation with colleagues. CONCLUSION: GPs described their gut feelings as important to decision making in primary care and a necessary addition to clinical guidance. The steps taken to legitimise their gut feelings matched that expected in good clinical practice.
The effects of environmental sustainability labels on selection, purchase, and consumption of food and drink products: a systematic review
This review assessed the effects of environmental labels on consumers’ demand for more sustainable food products. Six electronic databases were searched for experimental studies of ecolabels and food choices. We followed standard Cochrane methods and results were synthesized using vote counting. Fifty-six studies (N = 42,768 participants, 76 interventions) were included. Outcomes comprised selection (n = 14), purchase (n = 40) and consumption (n = 2). The ecolabel was presented as text (n = 36), logo (n = 13) or combination (n = 27). Message types included: organic (n = 25), environmentally sustainable (n = 27), greenhouse gas emissions (n = 17), and assorted “other” message types (n = 7). Ecolabels were tested in actual (n = 15) and hypothetical (n = 41) environments. Thirty-nine studies received an unclear or high RoB rating. Sixty comparisons favored the intervention and 16 favored control. Ecolabeling with a variety of messages and formats was associated with the selection and purchase of more sustainable food products.
System Architecture for "Support Through Mobile Messaging and Digital Health Technology for Diabetes" (SuMMiT-D): Design and Performance in Pilot and Randomized Controlled Feasibility Studies.
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a highly prevalent long-term condition with high morbidity and mortality rates. People with diabetes commonly worry about their diabetes medicines and do not always take them regularly as prescribed. This can lead to poor diabetes control. The Support Through Mobile Messaging and Digital Health Technology for Diabetes (SuMMiT-D) study aims to deliver brief messages as tailored interventions to support people with type 2 diabetes in better use of their diabetes medicines and to improve treatment adherence and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the overall architecture of a tailored intervention delivery system used in the pilot and randomized controlled feasibility studies of SuMMiT-D and reports its performance. METHODS: The SuMMiT-D system includes several platforms and resources to recruit participants and deliver messages as tailored interventions. Its core component is called the clinical system and is responsible for interacting with the participants by receiving and sending SMS text messages from and to them. The personalization and tailoring of brief messages for each participant is based on a list of built-in commands that they can use. RESULTS: For the pilot study, a total of 48 participants were recruited; they had a median age of 64 years (first quartile, third quartile [Q1, Q3: 54.5, 69]). For the feasibility study, a total of 209 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either the control or intervention group; they had a median age of 65 years (Q1, Q3: 56, 71), with 41.1% (86/209) being female. The participants used the SuMMiT-D system for up to 6 months (26 weeks) and had a wide range of different interactions with the SuMMiT-D system while tailored interventions were being delivered. For both studies, we had low withdrawal rates: only 4.2% and 5.3% for the pilot and feasibility studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A system was developed to successfully deliver brief messages as tailored health interventions to more than 250 people with type 2 diabetes via SMS text messages. On the basis of the low withdrawal rates and positive feedback received, it can be inferred that the SuMMiT-D system is robust, user-friendly, useful, and positive for most participants. From the two studies, we found that online recruitment was more efficient than recruitment via postal mail; a regular SMS text reminder (eg, every 4 weeks) can potentially increase the participants' interactions with the system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN13404264; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13404264.
Influenza and Respiratory Virus Surveillance, Vaccine Uptake, and Effectiveness at a Time of Cocirculating COVID-19: Protocol for the English Primary Care Sentinel System for 2020-2021.
BACKGROUND: The Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) and Public Health England (PHE) are commencing their 54th season of collaboration at a time when SARS-CoV-2 infections are likely to be cocirculating with the usual winter infections. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conduct surveillance of influenza and other monitored respiratory conditions and to report on vaccine uptake and effectiveness using nationally representative surveillance data extracted from primary care computerized medical records systems. We also aim to have general practices collect virology and serology specimens and to participate in trials and other interventional research. METHODS: The RCGP RSC network comprises over 1700 general practices in England and Wales. We will extract pseudonymized data twice weekly and are migrating to a system of daily extracts. First, we will collect pseudonymized, routine, coded clinical data for the surveillance of monitored and unexpected conditions; data on vaccine exposure and adverse events of interest; and data on approved research study outcomes. Second, we will provide dashboards to give general practices feedback about levels of care and data quality, as compared to other network practices. We will focus on collecting data on influenza-like illness, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and suspected COVID-19. Third, approximately 300 practices will participate in the 2020-2021 virology and serology surveillance; this will include responsive surveillance and long-term follow-up of previous SARS-CoV-2 infections. Fourth, member practices will be able to recruit volunteer patients to trials, including early interventions to improve COVID-19 outcomes and point-of-care testing. Lastly, the legal basis for our surveillance with PHE is Regulation 3 of the Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002; other studies require appropriate ethical approval. RESULTS: The RCGP RSC network has tripled in size; there were previously 100 virology practices and 500 practices overall in the network and we now have 322 and 1724, respectively. The Oxford-RCGP Clinical Informatics Digital Hub (ORCHID) secure networks enable the daily analysis of the extended network; currently, 1076 practices are uploaded. We are implementing a central swab distribution system for patients self-swabbing at home in addition to in-practice sampling. We have converted all our primary care coding to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) coding. Throughout spring and summer 2020, the network has continued to collect specimens in preparation for the winter or for any second wave of COVID-19 cases. We have collected 5404 swabs and detected 623 cases of COVID-19 through extended virological sampling, and 19,341 samples have been collected for serology. This shows our preparedness for the winter season. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a groundswell of general practices joining our network. It has also created a permissive environment in which we have developed the capacity and capability of the national primary care surveillance systems and our unique public health institute, the RCGP and University of Oxford collaboration.
Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and weight reduction in behavioural interventions—a pooled analysis
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Knowledge of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and weight loss is limited. The aim was to analyse whether selected obesity-associated SNPs within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), SEC16 homolog B (SEC16B), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene are associated with anthropometric changes during behavioural intervention for weight loss. genetic and anthropometric data from 576 individuals with overweight and obesity from four lifestyle interventions were obtained. A genetic predisposition score (GPS) was calculated. Our results show that study participants had a mean age of 48.2 ± 12.6 years and a mean baseline body mass index of 33.9 ± 6.4 kg/m2. Mean weight reduction after 12 months was −7.7 ± 10.9 kg. After 12 months of intervention, the MC4R SNPs rs571312 and rs17782313 were significantly associated with a greater decrease in body weight and BMI (p = 0.012, p = 0.011, respectively). The investigated SNPs within the other four genetic loci showed no statistically significant association with changes in anthropometric parameters. The GPS showed no statistically significant association with weight reduction. In conclusion there was no consistent evidence for statistically significant associations of SNPs with anthropometric changes during a behavioural intervention. It seems that other factors play a more significant in weight management than the investigated SNPs.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Reliable and valid measurements of meat intake are needed to advance understanding of its health effects and to evaluate interventions to reduce meat consumption. Here, we describe the development and reliability of the Oxford Meat Frequency Questionnaire (MFQ). It asks individuals to report the number of servings of meat and seafood products they consumed in the last 24 h and is administered daily over 7 days. The MFQ combines food portion size data from the UK Food Standards Agency with estimates of meat content in composite dishes from the UK’s National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Adults who self-reported to eat meat (n = 129) completed a 3-week web-based test–retest reliability study assessing the MFQ twice, with a wash-out week in the middle. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) revealed moderate to good agreement on all meat outcomes (total meat ICC = 0.716; minimum–maximum individual components = 0.531–0.680), except for fish and seafood (ICC = 0.257). Participants reported finding the questionnaire easy to use and, on average, completed it in less than 2 min. This new MFQ offers a quick, acceptable, and reliable method to measure changes in an individual’s meat intake in a UK population.
Using supermarket loyalty card data to provide personalised advice to help reduce saturated fat intake among patients with hypercholesterolemia: A qualitative study of participants’ experiences
Background: The ‘Primary Care SHOPping Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease Pre-vention’ (PCSHOP) trial tested the effectiveness and feasibility of a behavioural intervention to reduce saturated fat in food purchases. The intervention offered feedback from data collected through a supermarket loyalty card to supplement brief advice from a nurse. This qualitative study aimed to describe participants’ experiences of receiving this intervention. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one, telephone interviews with participants from the PCSHOP trial. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We employed the one sheet of paper technique and a thematic analysis to develop high-level themes in NVivo software. Results: Twenty-four participants were interviewed (mean age: 63 years (SD 12)). They reported that the brief advice did not provide any new information but they welcomed the sense of accountability the nurse provided. The personalised shopping feedback and healthier swap suggestions provided novel information that challenged previously held beliefs about the saturated fat content of food purchases and encouraged some positive dietary changes. However, the taste preferences of the participant or other household members were a barrier to changing food shopping behaviours. Conclusion: Harnessing loyalty card data is a novel and acceptable method to offering personalised dietary feedback. Yet, issues on the suitability of the healthier swap suggestions limited the extent of dietary change. Trial registration: ISRCTN14279335. Registered 1 September 2017.
<p><strong>Background:</strong><br /> There is a common perception that smoking generally helps people to manage stress, and may be a form of 'self‐medication' in people with mental health conditions. However, there are biologically plausible reasons why smoking may worsen mental health through neuroadaptations arising from chronic smoking, leading to frequent nicotine withdrawal symptoms (e.g. anxiety, depression, irritability), in which case smoking cessation may help to improve rather than worsen mental health.</p><br /> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong><br /> To examine the association between tobacco smoking cessation and change in mental health.</p><br /> <p><strong>Search Methods:</strong><br /> We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the trial registries clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, from 14 April 2012 to 07 January 2020. These were updated searches of a previously‐conducted non‐Cochrane review where searches were conducted from database inception to 13 April 2012.</p><br /> <p><strong>Selection Criteria:</strong><br /> We included controlled before‐after studies, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) analysed by smoking status at follow‐up, and longitudinal cohort studies. In order to be eligible for inclusion studies had to recruit adults who smoked tobacco, and assess whether they quit or continued smoking during the study. They also had to measure a mental health outcome at baseline and at least six weeks later.</p><br /> <p><strong>Data Collection and Analysis:</strong><br /> We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcomes were change in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms or mixed anxiety and depression symptoms between baseline and follow‐up. Secondary outcomes included change in symptoms of stress, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and social impact or social quality of life, as well as new incidence of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression disorders.<br /> We assessed the risk of bias for the primary outcomes using a modified ROBINS‐I tool. For change in mental health outcomes, we calculated the pooled standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference in change in mental health from baseline to follow‐up between those who had quit smoking and those who had continued to smoke. For the incidence of psychological disorders, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. For all meta‐analyses we used a generic inverse variance random‐effects model and quantified statistical heterogeneity using I2. We conducted subgroup analyses to investigate any differences in associations between sub‐populations, i.e. unselected people with mental illness, people with physical chronic diseases.<br /> We assessed the certainty of evidence for our primary outcomes (depression, anxiety, and mixed depression and anxiety) and our secondary social impact outcome using the eight GRADE considerations relevant to non‐randomised studies (risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness, publication bias, magnitude of the effect, the influence of all plausible residual confounding, the presence of a dose‐response gradient).</p><br /> <p><strong>Main Results:</strong><br /> We included 102 studies representing over 169,500 participants. Sixty‐two of these were identified in the updated search for this review and 40 were included in the original version of the review. Sixty‐three studies provided data on change in mental health, 10 were included in meta‐analyses of incidence of mental health disorders, and 31 were synthesised narratively.<br /> For all primary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in mental health symptoms compared with continuing to smoke: anxiety symptoms (SMD −0.28, 95% CI −0.43 to −0.13; 15 studies, 3141 participants; I2 = 69%; low‐certainty evidence); depression symptoms: (SMD −0.30, 95% CI −0.39 to −0.21; 34 studies, 7156 participants; I2 = 69%' very low‐certainty evidence); mixed anxiety and depression symptoms (SMD −0.31, 95% CI −0.40 to −0.22; 8 studies, 2829 participants; I2 = 0%; moderate certainty evidence). These findings were robust to preplanned sensitivity analyses, and subgroup analysis generally did not produce evidence of differences in the effect size among subpopulations or based on methodological characteristics. All studies were deemed to be at serious risk of bias due to possible time‐varying confounding, and three studies measuring depression symptoms were judged to be at critical risk of bias overall. There was also some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry. For these reasons, we rated our certainty in the estimates for anxiety as low, for depression as very low, and for mixed anxiety and depression as moderate.<br /> For the secondary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in symptoms of stress (SMD −0.19, 95% CI −0.34 to −0.04; 4 studies, 1792 participants; I2 = 50%), positive affect (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.33; 13 studies, 4880 participants; I2 = 75%), and psychological quality of life (SMD 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.16; 19 studies, 18,034 participants; I2 = 42%). There was also evidence that smoking cessation was not associated with a reduction in social quality of life, with the confidence interval incorporating the possibility of a small improvement (SMD 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.06; 9 studies, 14,673 participants; I2 = 0%). The incidence of new mixed anxiety and depression was lower in people who stopped smoking compared with those who continued (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86; 3 studies, 8685 participants; I2 = 57%), as was the incidence of anxiety disorder (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.12; 2 studies, 2293 participants; I2 = 46%). We deemed it inappropriate to present a pooled estimate for the incidence of new cases of clinical depression, as there was high statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 87%).</p><br /> <p><strong>Authors' Conclusions:</strong><br /> Taken together, these data provide evidence that mental health does not worsen as a result of quitting smoking, and very low‐ to moderate‐certainty evidence that smoking cessation is associated with small to moderate improvements in mental health. These improvements are seen in both unselected samples and in subpopulations, including people diagnosed with mental health conditions. Additional studies that use more advanced methods to overcome time‐varying confounding would strengthen the evidence in this area.</p>
Does cranberry extract reduce antibiotic use for symptoms of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (CUTI)? A feasibility randomised trial.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial of the effectiveness of cranberry extract in reducing antibiotic use by women with symptoms of acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). DESIGN: Open-label feasibility randomised parallel group trial. SETTING: Four general practices in Oxfordshire. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 18 years and above presenting to general practice with symptoms of acute, uncomplicated UTI. INTERVENTIONS: Women were randomly assigned using Research Electronic Data Capture in a 1:1:1 ratio to: (1) immediate antibiotics alone (n=15); (2) immediate antibiotics and immediate cranberry capsules for up to 7 days (n=15); or (3) immediate cranberry capsules and delayed antibiotics for self-initiation in case of non-improvement or worsening of symptoms (n=16). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were: rate of recruitment of participants; numbers lost to follow-up; proportion of electronic diaries completed by participants; and acceptability of the intervention and study procedures to participants and recruiters. Secondary outcomes included an exploration of differences in symptom burden and antibiotic use between groups. RESULTS: Four general practitioner practices (100%) were opened and recruited participants between 1 July and 2 December 2019, with nine study participants recruited per month on average. 68.7% (46/67) of eligible participants were randomised (target 45) with a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 19.9, range 18-81). 89.1% (41/46) of diaries contained some participant entered data and 69.6% (32/46) were fully complete. Three participants (6.5%) were lost to follow-up and two (4.4%) withdrew. Of women randomly assigned to take antibiotics alone (controls), one-third of respondents reported consuming cranberry products (33.3%, 4/12). There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: It appears feasible to conduct a randomised trial of the use of cranberry extract in the treatment of acute, uncomplicated UTI in general practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN Registry (ID: 10399299).
Cognitive-behavioural therapy for a variety of conditions: an overview of systematic reviews and panoramic meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural therapy aims to increase quality of life by changing cognitive and behavioural factors that maintain problematic symptoms. A previous overview of cognitive-behavioural therapy systematic reviews suggested that cognitive-behavioural therapy was effective for many conditions. However, few of the included reviews synthesised randomised controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: This project was undertaken to map the quality and gaps in the cognitive-behavioural therapy systematic review of randomised controlled trial evidence base. Panoramic meta-analyses were also conducted to identify any across-condition general effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy. DATA SOURCES: The overview was designed with cognitive-behavioural therapy patients, clinicians and researchers. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and OpenGrey databases were searched from 1992 to January 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Study inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) fulfil the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria; (2) intervention reported as cognitive-behavioural therapy or including one cognitive and one behavioural element; (3) include a synthesis of cognitive-behavioural therapy trials; (4) include either health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety or pain outcome; and (5) available in English. Review quality was assessed with A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR)-2. Reviews were quality assessed and data were extracted in duplicate by two independent researchers, and then mapped according to condition, population, context and quality. The effects from high-quality reviews were pooled within condition groups, using a random-effect panoramic meta-analysis. If the across-condition heterogeneity was I2 < 75%, we pooled across conditions. Subgroup analyses were conducted for age, delivery format, comparator type and length of follow-up, and a sensitivity analysis was performed for quality. RESULTS: A total of 494 reviews were mapped, representing 68% (27/40) of the categories of the International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision, Mortality and Morbidity Statistics. Most reviews (71%, 351/494) were of lower quality. Research on older adults, using cognitive-behavioural therapy preventatively, ethnic minorities and people living outside Europe, North America or Australasia was limited. Out of 494 reviews, 71 were included in the primary panoramic meta-analyses. A modest effect was found in favour of cognitive-behavioural therapy for health-related quality of life (standardised mean difference 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41, prediction interval -0.05 to 0.50, I2 = 32%), anxiety (standardised mean difference 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.43, prediction interval -0.28 to 0.88, I2 = 62%) and pain (standardised mean difference 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41, prediction interval -0.28 to 0.74, I2 = 64%) outcomes. All condition, subgroup and sensitivity effect estimates remained consistent with the general effect. A statistically significant interaction effect was evident between the active and non-active comparator groups for the health-related quality-of-life outcome. A general effect for depression outcomes was not produced as a result of considerable heterogeneity across reviews and conditions. LIMITATIONS: Data extraction and analysis were conducted at the review level, rather than returning to the individual trial data. This meant that the risk of bias of the individual trials could not be accounted for, but only the quality of the systematic reviews that synthesised them. CONCLUSION: Owing to the consistency and homogeneity of the highest-quality evidence, it is proposed that cognitive-behavioural therapy can produce a modest general, across-condition benefit in health-related quality-of-life, anxiety and pain outcomes. FUTURE WORK: Future research should focus on how the modest effect sizes seen with cognitive-behavioural therapy can be increased, for example identifying alternative delivery formats to increase adherence and reduce dropout, and pursuing novel methods to assess intervention fidelity and quality. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42017078690. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 9. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Describing a new food group classification system for UK biobank: analysis of food groups and sources of macro- and micronutrients in 208,200 participants.
PURPOSE: The UK Biobank study collected detailed dietary data using a web-based self-administered 24 h assessment tool, the Oxford WebQ. We aimed to describe a comprehensive food grouping system for this questionnaire and to report dietary intakes and key sources of selected nutrients by sex and education. METHODS: Participants with at least one valid 24-h questionnaire were included (n = 208,200). Dietary data were grouped based on the presence of nutrients as well as culinary use, processing, and plant/animal origin. For each food group, we calculated the contribution to energy intake, key macronutrients, and micronutrients. We also identified the top contributors to energy intake, free sugars and saturated fat by sex and education. RESULTS: From the 93 food groups, the top five contributors to energy intake (in descending order) were: desserts/cakes/pastries; white bread; white pasta/rice; bananas/other fruit; semi-skimmed milk. Wine, beer, and fruit juices were the top beverage contributors to overall energy intake. Biscuits, and desserts/cakes/pastries were the highest contributors to free sugars, total fat, and saturated fat intakes, but also contributed to the calcium and iron intakes. Top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and free sugars were broadly similar by sex and education category, with small differences in average nutrient intakes across the population. CONCLUSION: This new food classification system will support the growing interest in the associations between food groups and health outcomes and the development of food-based dietary guidelines. Food group variables will be available to all users of the UK Biobank WebQ questionnaire.