Prefrontal GABA levels, hippocampal resting perfusion and the risk of psychosis.
Modinos G., Şimşek F., Azis M., Bossong M., Bonoldi I., Samson C., Quinn B., Perez J., Broome MR., Zelaya F., Lythgoe DJ., Howes OD., Stone JM., Grace AA., Allen P., McGuire P.
Preclinical models propose that the onset of psychosis is associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, thought to be driven by cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that resting hippocampal perfusion is increased in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, but how this may be related to GABA concentrations is unknown. The present study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to address this issue in UHR subjects. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging were acquired to investigate the relationship between medial prefrontal (MPFC) GABA+ levels (including some contribution from macromolecules) and hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 36 individuals at UHR of psychosis, based on preclinical evidence that MPFC dysfunction is involved in hippocampal hyperactivity. The subjects were then clinically monitored for 2 years: during this period, 7 developed a psychotic disorder and 29 did not. At baseline, MPFC GABA+ levels were positively correlated with rCBF in the left hippocampus (region of interest analysis, p = 0.044 family-wise error corrected, FWE). This correlation in the left hippocampus was significantly different in UHR subjects who went on to develop psychosis relative to those who did not (p = 0.022 FWE), suggesting the absence of a correlation in the latter subgroup. These findings provide the first human evidence that MPFC GABA+ concentrations are related to resting hippocampal perfusion in the UHR state, and offer some support for a link between GABA levels and hippocampal function in the development of psychosis.