Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Management Programs for Cardiovascular Risk and COPD in The Netherlands.
Tsiachristas A., Burgers L., Rutten-van Mölken MPMH.
BACKGROUND: Disease management programs (DMPs) for cardiovascular risk (CVR) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasingly implemented in The Netherlands to improve care and patient's health behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the (cost-) effectiveness of Dutch DMPs as implemented in daily practice. METHODS: We compared the physical activity, smoking status, quality-adjusted life-years, and yearly costs per patient between the most and the least comprehensive DMPs in four disease categories: primary CVR prevention, secondary CVR prevention, both types of CVR prevention, and COPD (N = 1034). Propensity score matching increased comparability between DMPs. A 2-year cost-utility analysis was performed from the health care and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the impact of DMP development and implementation costs on cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Patients in the most comprehensive DMPs increased their physical activity more (except for primary CVR prevention) and had higher smoking cessation rates. The incremental QALYs ranged from -0.032 to 0.038 across all diseases. From a societal perspective, the most comprehensive DMPs decreased costs in primary CVR prevention (certainty 57%), secondary CVR prevention (certainty 88%), and both types of CVR prevention (certainty 98%). Moreover, the implementation of comprehensive DMPs led to QALY gains in secondary CVR prevention (certainty 92%) and COPD (certainty 69%). CONCLUSIONS: The most comprehensive DMPs for CVR and COPD have the potential to be cost saving, effective, or cost-effective compared with the least comprehensive DMPs. The challenge for Dutch stakeholders is to find the optimal mixture of interventions that is most suited for each target group.