The effect of chlorogenic acid on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Onakpoya IJ., Spencer EA., Thompson MJ., Heneghan CJ.
Several dietary supplements are currently marketed for management of hypertension, but the evidence for effectiveness is conflicting. Our objective was to critically appraise and evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on blood pressure, using data from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library. We also hand-searched the bibliographies of all retrieved articles. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies and extracted the data. The reporting quality of all included studies was assessed by the use of a quality assessment checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Seven eligible studies were identified, and five including 364 participants were included. There were variations in the reporting quality of the included RCTs. Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in favour of CGA (mean difference (MD): -4.31 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.60 to -3.01; I(2)=65%; P<0.00001). Meta-analysis also showed a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure favouring CGA (MD: -3.68 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.91 to -3.45; I(2)=97%; P<0.00001). All studies reported no adverse events. In conclusion, the evidence from published RCTs suggests that CGA intake causes statistically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The size of the effect is moderate. Few clinical trials have been conducted; they vary in design and methodology and are confined to Asian populations and funded by CGA manufacturers. Large independent trials evaluating the effects of CGA on blood pressure are warranted.