AIMS: To examine the association between future orientation (how individuals consider and value outcomes in the future) and smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months post quit-date in individuals enrolled in a smoking cessation study. DESIGN: Cohort analysis of randomized controlled trial data. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥18 years smoking ≥15 cigarettes daily, prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Future orientation was measured prior to quitting and at 4 weeks post-quitting using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale. Smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months was confirmed biochemically. Those lost to follow-up were assumed to not be abstinent. Potential confounders adjusted for were: age, gender, educational attainment, nicotine dependence and longest previous period quit. FINDINGS: A total of 697 participants provided data at baseline; 422 provided information on future orientation at 4 weeks. There was no evidence of an association between future orientation at baseline and abstinence at 4 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.05, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80-1.38] or 6 months (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.60-1.20). There was no change in future orientation from baseline to 4 weeks and no evidence that the change differed between those who were and were not quit at 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient = -0.04, 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: In smokers who are prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks, the extent of future orientation is unlikely to be a strong predictor of quitting over 4 weeks or 6 months and any increase in future orientation following quitting is likely to be small.

Original publication

DOI

10.1111/add.12621

Type

Journal article

Journal

Addiction

Publication Date

10/2014

Volume

109

Pages

1732 - 1740

Keywords

Cohort study, future orientation, motivation, smoking, time perspective, time preference, Adult, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Motivation, Orientation, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors, Smoking, Smoking Cessation, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, United Kingdom