PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the cervical range of motion device when measuring both active and passive range of motion in a group of individuals with sub-acute Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). METHODS: Participants were recruited as part of a large multi-centre Randomised Controlled Trial from UK emergency departments. Experienced research physiotherapists measured active and passive cervical spine movements in all directions. Both intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement were assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and limits of agreement methods. RESULTS: Different groups of 39 and 19 subjects were included in the intra and inter-observer studies, respectively. The CROM device demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement for all the active and passive half-cycle movements (ICC range 0.82-0.99) with the exception of one (passive right lateral flexion for inter-observer; ICC 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: The CROM device has proven to be a reproducible measurement method for a symptomatic WAD population using the measurement protocol described and can be used with confidence to differentiate individuals according to a single measurement.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Spine J

Publication Date





872 - 878


Adult, Arthrometry, Articular, Cervical Vertebrae, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Observer Variation, Range of Motion, Articular, Reproducibility of Results, Retrospective Studies, Whiplash Injuries