Refractory wound is a severe complication that leads to limb amputation in diabetes. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a key role in normal wound repair but is uncoupled in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes because of reduced cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)). We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo BH(4) synthesis, retards NOS uncoupling and accelerates wound healing in STZ mice. Blood glucose levels were significantly increased in both male endothelium-specific GTPCH I transgenic mice (Tg-GCH; via a tie-2 promoter) and wild-type (WT) littermates 5 days after STZ regimen. A full-thickness excisional wound was created on mouse dorsal skin by a 4-mm punch biopsy. Wound closure was delayed in STZ mice, which was rescued in STZ Tg-GCH mice. Cutaneous BH(4) level was significantly reduced in STZ mice vs. WT mice, which was maintained in STZ Tg-GCH mice. In STZ mice, constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity and nitrite levels were decreased compared with WT mice, paralleled by increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) level and inducible NOS (iNOS) activity. In STZ Tg-GCH mice, nitrite level and cNOS activity were potentiated and O(2)(-) level and iNOS activity were suppressed compared with STZ mice. Thus endothelium-specific BH(4) overexpression accelerates wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice by enhancing cNOS activity and suppressing oxidative stress.

Original publication

DOI

10.1152/ajpendo.00150.2009

Type

Journal article

Journal

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab

Publication Date

06/2009

Volume

296

Pages

E1423 - E1429

Keywords

Animals, Biopterin, Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental, Endothelium, GTP Cyclohydrolase, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III, Oxidative Stress, Superoxides, Wound Healing