Although the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative advises that no pacifiers be given to breastfeeding infants, both breastfeeding and pacifier use may protect against sudden infant death syndrome. The International Child Care Practice Study data set on child care practices associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk from 21 centers in 17 countries was used to describe infant-feeding practices and pacifier use and assess factors associated with breastfeeding. At approximately 3 months of age, rates of breastfeeding only (4%-80%) and pacifier use(12.5%-71%) varied between centers. Pacifier use was negatively associated with breastfeeding, and a dose-response effect was noted. Other negative (multiple birth, smoking by mother) and positive (intention to breastfeed, bed sharing, mothers' education) associations with breastfeeding only were identified. Although causality should not be inferred, these associations are consistent with previous studies. Advice on pacifiers should include potential benefits as well as risks.

Original publication

DOI

10.1177/0890334405278489

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Hum Lact

Publication Date

2005

Volume

21

Pages

289 - 295

Keywords

*Breast Feeding/psychology/statistics & numerical data Female Humans Infant Infant Care/*methods Infant, Newborn Male Mother-Child Relations *Pacifiers/adverse effects Sudden Infant Death/*prevention & control Time Factors