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The serotonin pathway has been implicated in nicotine dependence and may influence smoking cessation. Therefore, 792 cigarette smokers from the Patch in Practice trial were genotyped for the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1 A779C), serotonin transporter (SLC6A45-HTTLPR), and 5-HT1A (HTR1A C-1019G) polymorphisms. Cox regression analysis did not demonstrate significant effects of any of the three genotypes on relapse to smoking: TPH1 (Reference AA; AC: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.24, p=0.90; CC: HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73, 1.18, p=0.55); 5-HTTLPR (Reference LL; SL: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85, 1.20, p=0.90; SS: HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.91, 1.39, p=0.27); HTR1A (Reference CC; CG: HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86, 1.25, p=0.70; GG: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82, 1.24, p=0.93). Moreover, pooled analyses of data from all three extant pharmacogenetic NRT trials (N=1398) found no significant effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on continuous abstinence at 12-week (Reference LL; SL: odds ratio (OR)=1.25, 95% CI 0.89, 1.74, p=0.19; SS: OR=1.31, 95% CI 0.86, 1.98, p=0.21) or 26-week follow-up (Reference LL; SL: OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.64, 1.33, p=0.68; SS: OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.63, 1.58, p=1.00). These data do not support a statistically or clinically significant moderating effect of these specific 5-HT pathway genetic variants on smoking cessation. However, the possibility remains that other variants in these or other 5-HT genes may influence NRT efficacy for smoking cessation in treatment seeking smokers.

Original publication




Journal article


Drug Alcohol Depend

Publication Date





77 - 85


Administration, Cutaneous, Adult, Alleles, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Gene Frequency, Genotype, Humans, Male, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Middle Aged, Nicotine, Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Smoking Cessation, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome, Tobacco Use Disorder, Treatment Outcome, Tryptophan Hydroxylase