GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) synthesis. Decreases in GTPCH activity and expression have been shown in late stages of acute cardiac rejection, suggesting a deficit in BH(4). We hypothesized that increasing intracellular levels of BH(4) by cardiac myocyte-targeted overexpression of GTPCH would diminish acute cardiac allograft rejection. Transgenic mice overexpressing GTPCH in the heart were generated and crossed on C57BL6 background. Wild-type and transgenic mouse donor hearts were transplanted into BALB/c recipient mice. Left ventricular (LV) function, histological rejection, BH(4) levels, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression (mRNA) were examined. Expression of human GTPCH was documented by PCR, Western analysis, and function by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in cardiac BH(4) levels. GTPCH transgene decreased histological rejection (46%; P < 0.003) and cardiac myocyte injury (eosin autofluorescence; 56%; P < 0.0001) independent of changes in inflammatory cytokine expression or nitric oxide content. GTPCH transgene decreased IL-2 (88%; P < 0.002), IL-1R2 (42%; P < 0.0001), and programmed cell death-1 (67%; P < 0.0001) expression, whereas it increased fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (156%; P < 0.0001) and stromal-derived factor-1 (2; 190%; P < 0.0001) expression. There was no difference in ejection fraction or fractional shortening; however, LV mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) only in wild-type grafts. The decreases in LV mass, cardiac injury, and histological rejection support a protective role of cardiac GTPCH overexpression and increased BH(4) synthesis in cardiac allografts. The mechanism of the decreased rejection appears related to decreased T cell proliferation and modulation of immune function by higher expression of genes involved in hematopoietic/stromal cell development and recruitment.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol

Publication Date





H88 - H96


Acute Disease, Animals, Biopterin, Cytokines, GTP Cyclohydrolase, Genotype, Graft Rejection, Heart Transplantation, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Myocytes, Cardiac, Nitric Oxide, Phenotype, RNA, Messenger, Transplantation, Homologous, Ultrasonography, Ventricular Function, Left