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CLAHRC assessment of care home resident’s dental health leads to positive impact on patients.
Statistical models for the deterioration of kidney function in a primary care population: A retrospective database analysis
Background: Evidence for kidney function monitoring intervals in primary care is weak, and based mainly on expert opinion. In the absence of trials of monitoring strategies, an approach combining a model for the natural history of kidney function over time combined with a cost-effectiveness analysis offers the most feasible approach for comparing the effects of monitoring under a variety of policies. This study aimed to create a model for kidney disease progression using routinely collected measures of kidney function. Methods: This is an open cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years, registered at 643 UK general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2014. At study entry, no patients were kidney transplant donors or recipients, pregnant or on dialysis. Hidden Markov models for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) stage progression were fitted to four patient cohorts defined by baseline albuminuria stage; adjusted for sex, history of heart failure, cancer, hypertension and diabetes, annually updated for age. Results: Of 1,973,068 patients, 1,921,949 had no recorded urine albumin at baseline, 37,947 had normoalbuminuria (<3mg/mmol), 10,248 had microalbuminuria (3–30mg/mmol), and 2,924 had macroalbuminuria (>30mg/mmol). Estimated annual transition probabilities were 0.75–1.3%, 1.5–2.5%, 3.4–5.4% and 3.1–11.9% for each cohort, respectively. Misclassification of eGFR stage was estimated to occur in 12.1% (95%CI: 11.9–12.2%) to 14.7% (95%CI: 14.1–15.3%) of tests. Male gender, cancer, heart failure and age were independently associated with declining renal function, whereas the impact of raised blood pressure and glucose on renal function was entirely predicted by albuminuria. Conclusions: True kidney function deteriorates slowly over time, declining more sharply with elevated urine albumin, increasing age, heart failure, cancer and male gender. Consecutive eGFR measurements should be interpreted with caution as observed improvement or deterioration may be due to misclassification.
Use of illicit substances and violent behaviour in psychotic disorders: two nationwide case-control studies and meta-analyses.
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder explains much of the excess risk of violent behaviour in psychotic disorders. However, it is unclear to what extent the pharmacological properties and subthreshold use of illicit substances are associated with violence. METHODS: Individuals with psychotic disorders were recruited for two nationwide projects: GROUP (N = 871) in the Netherlands and NEDEN (N = 921) in the United Kingdom. Substance use and violent behaviour were assessed with standardized instruments and multiple sources of information. First, we used logistic regression models to estimate the associations of daily and nondaily use with violence for cannabis, stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens in the GROUP and NEDEN samples separately. Adjustments were made for age, sex and educational level. We then combined the results in random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Daily use, compared with nondaily or no use, and nondaily use, compared with no use, increased the pooled odds of violence in people with psychotic disorders for all substance categories. The increases were significant for daily use of cannabis [pooled odds ratio (pOR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.0), stimulants (pOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.5) and depressants (pOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5), and nondaily use of stimulants (pOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and hallucinogens (pOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). Daily use of hallucinogens, which could only be analysed in the NEDEN sample, significantly increased the risk of violence (adjusted odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.3). CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to prevent violent behaviour in psychotic disorders should target any substance use.
Identifying routine clinical predictors of non-adherence to second line therapies in Type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort analysis in a large primary care database.
AIMS: Non-adherence to medication is a major problem for patients with diabetes leading to poor response to therapy. Many factors associated with poor adherence have been identified, but their combined predictive ability has not been assessed. We investigated whether combinations of routinely available clinical features can predict which patients are likely to be non-adherent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 67882 patients with prescription records for their first and second oral glucose lowering therapies were identified from electronic healthcare records (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)). Non-adherence was defined as a medical possession ratio (MPR) ≤80%. Potential predictors were examined including age at diagnosis, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, Charlson Index and other recent prescriptions. RESULTS: Routine clinical features were poor at predicting non-adherence to the first diabetes therapy (c-statistic=0.601 for all in combined model). Non-adherence to the second drug was better predicted for all combined factors (c=0.715) but this improvement was predominantly a result of including adherence to the first drug (c=0.695 for this alone). Patients with MPR≤80% on their first drug were 3.6 (95% CI 3.3,3.8) times more likely to be non-adherent on their second drug (32% v 9%). CONCLUSIONS: Although certain clinical features are associated with poor adherence, their performance for predicting who is likely to be non-adherent, even when combined, is weak. The strongest predictor of adherence to second-line therapy is adherence to the first therapy. Examining previous prescription records could offer a practical way for clinicians to identify potentially non-adherent patients and is an area warranting further research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
© 2019, Nature. Teach people to think critically about claims and comparisons — they will make better decisions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Publisher Correction: The metabolite BH4 controls T cell proliferation in autoimmunity and cancer (Nature, (2018), 563, 7732, (564-568), 10.1038/s41586-018-0701-2)
© 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. In this Letter, owing to an error in the production process, author Martin Aichinger was inadvertently associated with affiliation 14 (Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden) instead of affiliation 13 (Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna Biocenter, Campus-Vienna-Biocenter 1, Vienna, Austria). In addition, the chemical structure of QM385 in Fig. 3a was incorrect. Figure 1 of this Amendment shows the incorrect and corrected structures, for transparency. These errors have been corrected online.
Exercise or manual physiotherapy compared with a single session of physiotherapy for osteoporotic vertebral fracture: three-arm PROVE RCT.
BACKGROUND: A total of 25,000 people in the UK have osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF). Evidence suggests that physiotherapy may have an important treatment role. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two different physiotherapy programmes for people with OVF compared with a single physiotherapy session. DESIGN: This was a prospective, adaptive, multicentre, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) with nested qualitative and health economic studies. SETTING: This trial was based in 21 NHS physiotherapy departments. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were people with symptomatic OVF. INTERVENTIONS: Seven sessions of either manual outpatient physiotherapy or exercise outpatient physiotherapy compared with the best practice of a 1-hour single session of physiotherapy (SSPT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were measured at 4 and 12 months. The primary outcomes were quality of life and muscle endurance, which were measured by the disease-specific QUALEFFO-41 (Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis - 41 items) and timed loaded standing (TLS) test, respectively. Secondary outcomes were (1) thoracic kyphosis angle, (2) balance, evaluated via the functional reach test (FRT), and (3) physical function, assessed via the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, a health resource use and falls diary, and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version. RESULTS: A total of 615 participants were enrolled, with 216, 203 and 196 randomised by a computer-generated program to exercise therapy, manual therapy and a SSPT, respectively. Baseline data were available for 613 participants, 531 (86.6%) of whom were women; the mean age of these participants was 72.14 years (standard deviation 9.09 years). Primary outcome data were obtained for 69% of participants (429/615) at 12 months: 175 in the exercise therapy arm, 181 in the manual therapy arm and 173 in the SSPT arm. Interim analysis met the criteria for all arms to remain in the study. For the primary outcomes at 12 months, there were no significant benefits over SSPT of exercise [QUALEFFO-41, difference -0.23 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.20 to 1.59 points; p = 1.000; and TLS test, difference 5.77 seconds, 95% CI -4.85 to 20.46 seconds; p = 0.437] or of manual therapy (QUALEFFO-41, difference 1.35 points, 95% CI -1.76 to 2.93 points; p = 0.744; TLS test, difference 9.69 seconds (95% CI 0.09 to 24.86 seconds; p = 0.335). At 4 months, there were significant gains for both manual therapy and exercise therapy over SSPT in the TLS test in participants aged < 70 years. Exercise therapy was superior to a SSPT at 4 months in the SPPB, FRT and 6MWT and manual therapy was superior to a SSPT at 4 months in the TLS test and FRT. Neither manual therapy nor exercise therapy was cost-effective relative to a SSPT using the threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest RCT to date assessing physiotherapy in participants with OVFs. At 1 year, neither treatment intervention conferred more benefit than a single 1-hour physiotherapy advice session. The focus of future work should be on the intensity and duration of interventions to determine if changes to these would demonstrate more sustained effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49117867. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 44. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Multifactorial interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 41 trials and almost 20 000 participants.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the longer term effects of multifactorial interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community, and to explore whether prespecific trial-level characteristics are associated with greater fall prevention effects. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, CENTRAL and trial registries were searched up to 25 July 2018. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomised controlled trials (≥12 months' follow-up) evaluating the effects of multifactorial interventions on falls in older people aged 65 years and over, living in the community, compared with either usual care or usual care plus advice. REVIEW METHODS: Two authors independently verified studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Rate ratios (RaR) with 95% CIs were calculated for rate of falls, risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean difference for continuous outcomes. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation was used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 41 trials totalling 19 369 participants; mean age 72-85 years. Exercise was the most common prespecified component of the multifactorial interventions (85%; n=35/41). Most trials were judged at unclear or high risk of bias in ≥1 domain. Twenty trials provided data on rate of falls and showed multifactorial interventions may reduce the rate at which people fall compared with the comparator (RaR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.88; 20 trials; 10 116 participants; I2=90%; low-quality evidence). Multifactorial interventions may also slightly lower the risk of people sustaining one or more falls (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00; 30 trials; 13 817 participants; I2=56%; moderate-quality evidence) and recurrent falls (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.00; 15 trials; 7277 participants; I2=46%; moderate-quality evidence). However, there may be little or no difference in other fall-related outcomes, such as fall-related fractures, falls requiring hospital admission or medical attention and health-related quality of life. Very few trials (n=3) reported on adverse events related to the intervention. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed that the effect on rate of falls may be smaller when compared with usual care plus advice as opposed to usual care only. Overall, heterogeneity remained high and was not explained by the prespecified characteristics included in the meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Multifactorial interventions (most of which include exercise prescription) may reduce the rate of falls and slightly reduce risk of older people sustaining one or more falls and recurrent falls (defined as two or more falls within a specified time period). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102549.
Randomised controlled trial comparing hospital at home care with inpatient hospital care. II: cost minimisation analysis.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the cost of providing hospital at home in place of some forms of inpatient hospital care. DESIGN: Cost minimisation study within a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: District general hospital and catchment area of neighbouring community trust. SUBJECTS: Patients recovering from hip replacement (n=86), knee replacement (n=86), and hysterectomy (n=238); elderly medical patients (n=96); and patients with chronic obstructive airways disease (n=32). INTERVENTIONS: Hospital at home or inpatient hospital care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cost of hospital at home scheme to health service, to general practitioners, and to patients and their families compared with hospital care. RESULTS: No difference was detected in total healthcare costs between hospital at home and hospital care for patients recovering from a hip or knee replacement, or elderly medical patients. Hospital at home significantly increased healthcare costs for patients recovering from a hysterectomy (ratio of geometrical means 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.29, P=0.009) and for those with chronic obstructive airways disease (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.01). Hospital at home significantly increased general practitioners' costs for elderly medical patients (Mann-Whitney U test, P<0.01) and for those with chronic obstructive airways disease (P=0.02). Patient and carer expenditure made up a small proportion of total costs. CONCLUSION: Hospital at home care did not reduce total healthcare costs for the conditions studied in this trial, and costs were significantly increased for patients recovering from a hysterectomy and those with chronic obstructive airways disease. There was some evidence that costs were shifted to primary care for elderly medical patients and those with chronic obstructive airways disease.
Randomised controlled trial comparing hospital at home care with inpatient hospital care. I: three month follow up of health outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: To compare hospital at home care with inpatient hospital care in terms of patient outcomes. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with three month follow up. SETTING: District general hospital and catchment area of neighbouring community trust. SUBJECTS: Patients recovering from hip replacement (n=86), knee replacement (n=86), and hysterectomy (n=238); elderly medical patients (n=96); and patients with chronic obstructive airways disease (n=32). INTERVENTIONS: Hospital at home care or inpatient hospital care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dartmouth COOP chart to measure patients' general health status; SF-36 to measure possible limitations in physical functioning of patients with hysterectomy; disease specific measures-chronic respiratory disease questionnaire, Barthel index for elderly medical patients, Oxford hip score, and Bristol knee score; hospital readmission and mortality data; carer strain index to measure burden on carers; patients' and carers' preferred form of care. RESULTS: At follow up, there were no major differences in outcome between hospital at home care and hospital care for any of the patient groups except that those recovering from hip replacement reported a significantly greater improvement in quality of life with hospital at home care (difference in change from baseline value 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.88). Hospital at home did not seem suitable for patients recovering from a knee replacement, as 14 (30%) of patients allocated to hospital at home remained in hospital. Patients in all groups preferred hospital at home care except those with chronic obstructive airways disease. No differences were detected for carer burden. Carers of patients recovering from knee replacement preferred hospital at home care, while carers of patients recovering from a hysterectomy preferred hospital care. CONCLUSIONS: Few differences in outcome were detected. Thus, the cost of hospital at home compared with hospital care becomes a primary concern.
Using interactive videos in general practice to inform patients about treatment choices: a pilot study.
Our objective was to assess the acceptability of using an interactive video system in a general practice setting to inform patients about treatment choices. A descriptive cohort study was carried out in eight general practices in Oxfordshire. Fifty-four patients with mild hypertension and 29 with benign prostatic hypertrophy were studied. Patients' views of the video, treatment preference, level of involvement in treatment decision and satisfaction with decision-making process and GPs' views of the effect of the video on subsequent consultations were measured. Both patients and GPs reported favourable impressions of the interactive video system: 71% of patients said it definitely helped with their treatment decision; GPs said they found the video helpful in 82% of cases. The results of this pilot study were sufficiently encouraging to indicate the need for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of the video on the doctor-patient relationship, on subsequent treatment decisions and on health outcomes and patients' well-being.
At the start of the Enhanced Care Home Outcomes (ECHO) study an audit was carried out of its 104 care homes (approx. 4,000 residents) to collate baseline data on dementia diagnosis, nutrition, end of life care and medication use.
A further audit was planned for the end of the project, in January 2016, as part its evaluation. This audit was modified to include dental care in these care homes, making efficient use of the existing ECHO integrated care teams and resources.
The aim of the dental audit was to find out if the residents in the care homes had an oral health care plan. If they did have a care plan, whether the plan adheres to best practice guidelines. The audit took place in collaboration with the dental team for Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust who were also involved in designing the data collection tools.
In total 3,305 resident’s notes were audited using the dental guidance. Results for each care home were categorised as either green, amber or red:
- Green – Dental care plan completed as per guideline;
- Amber – Dental care plan partially completed as per guideline; and
- Red – No dental care plan.
This audit is, to our knowledge, the largest audit in this subject area and highlights a number of care needs for a vulnerable population.
The results found that only 10% of care home residents in Oxfordshire had a fully completed dental care plan.
The results of the audit were fed back to each care home enabling them to examine their practices, and has also provided Oxford Health Dental Team with valuable information regarding the dental health of care home residents living in Oxfordshire’s care homes and to develop an action plan to address this.
Involving the Oxford Health NHS FT Dental team in the designing of the data collection tools also helped to further embed a culture of research in an NHS setting.
We know poor dental health is linked to weight loss, pain and a reduced sense of well-being, . Improving dental care planning for care home residents will have a positive impact on resident’s health and well-being.
This work has led to a collaboration of organisations, including Oxford Health NHS FT and Health Education England Thames Valley, and the development of a bid (pending at time of writing, August 2017) for further research funding to investigate effective practice in relation to dental care for people with dementia in care homes.