Views about integrating smoking cessation treatment within psychological services for patients with common mental illness: a multi-perspective qualitative study
<jats:p>Background: Smoking rates are significantly higher in people with mental health problems, compared to those without. Negative attitudes towards smoking cessation are widespread in inpatient settings towards patients with severe and enduring mental illness. It is not clear if the same attitudes operate in psychological services towards people with common mental illness. We aimed to understand the concerns and views that patients, therapists, and smoking cessation practitioners may have about integrating smoking cessation treatment into psychological treatment for common mental illness and how these concerns may be overcome. Methods: Thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews. Interviews took place in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) and smoking cessation services in England. Participants were 11 psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWPs), six IAPT patients with common mental illness, and six smoking cessation advisors. Findings: IAPT patients reported psychological benefits from smoking, but also described smoking as a form of therapeutic self-harm. PWPs seem positive towards smoking cessation treatment for people with common mental illness. IAPT PWPs and patients accept evidence that smoking tobacco may harm mental health, and quitting might benefit mental health. PWPs report expertise in helping people with common mental illness to make behavioural changes in the face of mood disturbances and poor motivation. IAPT appears to be a natural environment for smoking cessation intervention. PWPs felt confident to offer smoking cessation treatments to IAPT patients, but thought that a reduction in caseload was required to deliver smoking cessation support in an already pressed service.</jats:p>
The True Colours remote mood monitoring system was developed over a decade ago by researchers, psychiatrists, and software engineers at the University of Oxford to allow patients to report on a range of symptoms via text messages, Web interfaces, or mobile phone apps. The system has evolved to encompass a wide range of measures, including psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and medication. Patients are prompted to provide data according to an agreed personal schedule: weekly, daily, or at specific times during the day. The system has been applied across a number of different populations, for the reporting of mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders, psychosis, self-harm, and inflammatory bowel disease, and it has shown good compliance. Over the past decade, there have been over 36,000 registered True Colours patients and participants in the United Kingdom, with more than 20 deployments of the system supporting clinical service and research delivery. The system has been adopted for routine clinical care in mental health services, supporting more than 3000 adult patients in secondary care, and 27,263 adolescent patients are currently registered within Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire. The system has also proven to be an invaluable scientific resource as a platform for research into mood instability and as an electronic outcome measure in randomized controlled trials. This paper aimed to report on the existing applications of the system, setting out lessons learned, and to discuss the implications for tailored symptom monitoring, as well as the barriers to implementation at a larger scale.
BACKGROUND: Although many meta-analyses have examined the association between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent outcomes, the scope, validity, and quality of this evidence has not been comprehensively assessed. We aimed to systematically review existing meta-analyses on a wide range of long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse, and evaluate the quality of the literature. METHODS: In this umbrella review, we searched four databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Global Health) from inception to Dec 31, 2018, to identify meta-analyses of observational studies that examined the association between childhood sexual abuse (before 18 years of age) and long-term consequences (after 18 years). We compared odds ratios (ORs) across different outcomes. We also examined measures of quality, including heterogeneity between studies and evidence for publication bias. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42016049701. FINDINGS: We identified 19 meta-analyses that included 559 primary studies, covering 28 outcomes in 4 089 547 participants. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with 26 of 28 specific outcomes: specifically, six of eight adult psychiatric diagnoses (ORs ranged from 2·2 [95% CI 1·8-2·8] to 3·3 [2·2-4·8]), all studied negative psychosocial outcomes (ORs ranged from 1·2 [1·1-1·4] to 3·4 [2·3-4·8]), and all physical health conditions (ORs ranged from 1·4 [1·3-1·6] to 1·9 [1·4-2·8]). Strongest psychiatric associations with childhood sexual abuse were reported for conversion disorder (OR 3·3 [95% CI 2·2-4·8]), borderline personality disorder (2·9 [2·5-3·3]), anxiety (2·7 [2·5-2·8]), and depression (2·7 [2·4-3·0]). The systematic reviews for two psychiatric outcomes (post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia) and one psychosocial outcome (substance misuse) met high quality standards. Quality was low for meta-analyses on borderline personality disorder and anxiety, and moderate for conversion disorder. Assuming causality, population attributable risk fractions for outcomes ranged from 1·7% (95% CI 0·7-3·3) for unprotected sexual intercourse to 14·4% (8·8-19·9) for conversion disorder. INTERPRETATION: Although childhood sexual abuse was associated with a wide range of psychosocial and health outcomes, systematic reviews on only two psychiatric disorders (post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia) and one psychosocial outcome (substance misuse) were of a high quality. Whether services should prioritise interventions that mitigate developing certain psychiatric disorders following childhood abuse requires further review. Higher-quality meta-analyses for specific outcomes and more empirical studies on the developmental pathways from childhood sexual abuse to later outcomes are necessary. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.
Online patient feedback as a measure of quality in primary care: a multimethod study using correlation and qualitative analysis
<jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p>To ascertain the relationship between online patient feedback and the General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS) and the Friends and Family Test (FFT). To consider the potential benefit it may add by describing the content of public reviews found on NHS Choices for all general practices in one Clinical Commissioning Group in England.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Design</jats:title><jats:p>Multimethod study using correlation and thematic analysis.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Setting</jats:title><jats:p>1396 public online reviews and ratings on NHS Choices for all General Practices (n=70) in Oxfordshire Clinical Commissioning Group in England.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Significant moderate correlations were found between the online patient feedback and the GPPS and the FFT. Three themes were developed through the qualitative analysis: (1) online feedback largely provides positive reinforcement for practice staff; (2) online feedback is used as a platform for suggesting service organisation and delivery improvements; (3) online feedback can be a source of insight into patients’ expectations of care. These themes illustrate the wide range of topics commented on by patients, including their medical care, relationships with various members of staff, practice facilities, amenities and services in primary care settings.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>This multimethod study demonstrates that online feedback found on NHS Choices is significantly correlated with established measures of quality in primary care. This suggests it has a potential use in understanding patient experience and satisfaction, and a potential use in quality improvement and patient safety. The qualitative analysis shows that this form of feedback contains helpful information about patients’ experiences of general practice that provide insight into issues of quality and patient safety relevant to primary care. Health providers should offer patients multiple ways of offering feedback, including online, and should have systems in place to respond to and act on this feedback.</jats:p></jats:sec>
Mobile phone text-messaging interventions aimed to prevent cardiovascular diseases (Text2PreventCVD): systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.
Background: A variety of small mobile phone text-messaging interventions have indicated improvement in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Yet the extent of this improvement and whether it impacts multiple risk factors together is uncertain. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to investigate the effects of text-messaging interventions for CVD prevention. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify trials investigating a text-messaging intervention focusing on CVD prevention with the potential to modify at least two CVD risk factors in adults. The main outcome was blood pressure (BP). We conducted standard and IPD meta-analysis on pooled data. We accounted for clustering of patients within studies and the primary analysis used random-effects models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: Nine trials were included in the systematic review involving 3779 participants and 5 (n=2612) contributed data to the IPD meta-analysis. Standard meta-analysis showed that the weighted mean differences are as follows: systolic blood pressure (SBP), -4.13 mm Hg (95% CI -11.07 to 2.81, p<0.0001); diastolic blood pressure (DBP), -1.11 mm Hg (-1.91 to -0.31, p=0.002); and body mass index (BMI), -0.32 (-0.49 to -0.16, p=0.000). In the IPD meta-analysis, the mean difference are as follows: SBP, -1.3 mm Hg (-5.4 to 2.7, p=0.5236); DBP, -0.8 mm Hg (-2.5 to 1.0, p=0.3912); and BMI, -0.2 (-0.8 to 0.4, p=0.5200) in the random-effects model. The impact on other risk factors is described, but there were insufficient data to conduct meta-analyses. Conclusion: Mobile phone text-messaging interventions have modest impacts on BP and BMI. Simultaneous but small impacts on multiple risk factors are likely to be clinically relevant and improve outcome, but there are currently insufficient data in pooled analyses to examine the extent to which simultaneous reduction in multiple risk factors occurs. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42016033236.
Examining Development Processes for Text Messaging Interventions to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Literature Review.
BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered by mobile phones have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by supporting behavior change toward healthier lifestyles and treatment adherence. To allow replication and adaptation of these interventions across settings, it is important to fully understand how they have been developed. However, the development processes of these interventions have not previously been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically describe and compare the development process of text messaging interventions identified in the Text2PreventCVD systematic review. METHODS: We extracted data about the development process of the 9 interventions identified in the Text2PreventCVD systematic review. Data extraction, which was guided by frameworks for the development of complex interventions, considered the following development stages: intervention planning, design, development, and pretesting. Following data extraction, we invited the developers of the interventions to contribute to our study by reviewing the accuracy of the extracted data and providing additional data not reported in the available publications. RESULTS: A comprehensive description of the development process was available for 5 interventions. Multiple methodologies were used for the development of each intervention. Intervention planning involved gathering information from stakeholder consultations, literature reviews, examination of relevant theory, and preliminary qualitative research. Intervention design involved the use of behavior change theories and behavior change techniques. Intervention development involved (1) generating message content based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions; (2) conducting literature reviews and primary qualitative research to inform decisions about message frequency, timing, and level of tailoring; and (3) gathering end-user feedback concerning message readability, intervention acceptability, and perceived utility. Intervention pretesting involved pilot studies with samples of 10 to 30 participants receiving messages for a period ranging from 1 to 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The development process of the text messaging interventions examined was complex and comprehensive, involving multiple studies to guide decisions about the scope, content, and structure of the interventions. Additional research is needed to establish whether effective messaging systems can be adapted from work already done or whether this level of development is needed for application in other conditions and settings.
Accurately reflecting uncertainty when using patient-level simulation models to extrapolate clinical trial data
Introduction: Patient-level simulation models facilitate extrapolation of clinical trial data, whilst allowing for heterogeneity, prior history, and non-linearity. However, combining different types of uncertainty around within-trial and extrapolated results remains challenging. Methods: We tested four methods to combine parameter uncertainty (around the regression coefficients used to predict future events) with sampling uncertainty (uncertainty around mean risk factors within the finite sample whose outcomes are being predicted and the effect of treatment on these risk factors). We compared these four methods using a simulation study based on an economic evaluation extrapolating the AFORRD randomised controlled trial using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model version 2. This established type 2 diabetes model predicts patient-level health outcomes and costs. Results: 95% confidence intervals around life-years gained gave 25% coverage when sampling uncertainty was excluded (i.e. 25% of 95% confidence intervals contained the “true” value). Allowing for sampling uncertainty as well as parameter uncertainty widened confidence intervals by 6.3-fold and gave 96.3% coverage. Methods adjusting for baseline risk factors that combine sampling and parameter uncertainty overcame the bias that can result from between-group baseline imbalance and gave confidence intervals around 50% wider than those just considering parameter uncertainty, with 99.8% coverage. Conclusions: Analyses extrapolating data for individual trial participants should include both sampling uncertainty and parameter uncertainty and should adjust for any imbalance in baseline covariates.
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is a major injury that causes significant problems for affected individuals and their family and carers. Over 40% of people with hip fracture have dementia or cognitive impairment. The outcomes of these individuals after surgery are poorer than for those without dementia. It is unclear which care and rehabilitation interventions achieve the best outcomes for these people. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the effectiveness of models of care including enhanced rehabilitation strategies designed specifically for people with dementia following hip fracture surgery compared to usual care. (b) To assess for people with dementia the effectiveness of models of care including enhanced rehabilitation strategies that are designed for all older people, regardless of cognitive status, following hip fracture surgery, compared to usual care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois), the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science), LILACS (BIREME), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 16 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of any model of enhanced care and rehabilitation for people with dementia after hip fracture surgery compared to usual care. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. We assessed risk of bias of the included trials. We synthesised data only if we considered the trials to be sufficiently homogeneous in terms of participants, interventions, and outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to rate the overall certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 555 participants. Three trials compared models of enhanced care in the inpatient setting with conventional care. Two trials compared an enhanced care model provided in inpatient settings and at home after discharge with conventional care. Two trials compared geriatrician-led care in-hospital to conventional care led by the orthopaedic team. None of the interventions were designed specifically for people with dementia, therefore the data included in the review were from subgroups of people with dementia or cognitive impairment participating in randomised controlled trials investigating models of care for all older people following hip fracture. The end of follow-up in the trials ranged from the point of acute hospital discharge to 24 months after discharge. We considered all trials to be at high risk of bias in more than one domain. As subgroups of larger trials, the analyses lacked power to detect differences between the intervention groups. Furthermore, there were some important differences in baseline characteristics of participants between the experimental and control groups. Using the GRADE approach, we downgraded the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes to low or very low. The effect estimates for almost all comparisons were very imprecise, and the overall certainty for most results was very low. There were no data from any study for our primary outcome of health-related quality of life. There was only very low certainty for our other primary outcome, activities of daily living and functional performance, therefore we were unable to draw any conclusions with confidence. There was low-certainty that enhanced care and rehabilitation in-hospital may reduce rates of postoperative delirium (odds ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.22, 2 trials, n = 141) and very low-certainty associating it with lower rates of some other complications. There was also low-certainty that, compared to orthopaedic-led management, geriatrician-led management may lead to shorter hospital stays (mean difference 4.00 days, 95% CI 3.61 to 4.39, 1 trial, n = 162). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence that some of the models of enhanced rehabilitation and care used in the included trials may show benefits over usual care for preventing delirium and reducing length of stay for people with dementia who have been treated for hip fracture. However, the certainty of these results is low. Data were available from only a small number of trials, and the certainty for all other results is very low. Determining the optimal strategies to improve outcomes for this growing population of patients should be a research priority.
BACKGROUND:The aim was to estimate the prevalence of frailty and relative contribution of physical/balance, nutritive, cognitive and sensory frailty to important adverse health states (falls, physical activity levels, outdoor mobility, problems in self-care or usual activities, and lack of energy or accomplishment) in an English cohort by age and sex. METHODS:Analysis of baseline data from a cohort of 9803 community-dwelling participants in a clinical trial. The sample was drawn from a random selection of all people aged 70 or more registered with 63 general practices across England. Data were collected by postal questionnaire. Frailty was measured with the Strawbridge questionnaire. We used cross sectional, multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between frailty domains and known correlates and adjusted for age. Some models were stratified by sex. RESULTS:Mean age of participants was 78 years (sd 5.7), range 70 to 101 and 47.5% (4653/9803) were men. The prevalence of overall frailty was 20.7% (2005/9671) and there was no difference in prevalence by sex (Odds Ratio 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval 0.89 to 1.08). Sensory frailty was the most common and this was reported by more men (1823/4586) than women (1469/5056; Odds Ratio for sensory frailty 0.62, 95% Confidence Interval 0.57 to 0.68). Men were less likely than women to have physical or nutritive frailty. Physical frailty had the strongest independent associations with adverse health states. However, sensory frailty was independently associated with falls, less frequent walking, problems in self-care and usual activities, lack of energy and accomplishment. CONCLUSIONS:Physical frailty was more strongly associated with adverse health states, but sensory frailty was much more common. The health gain from intervention for sensory frailty in England is likely to be substantial, particularly for older men. Sensory frailty should be explored further as an important target of intervention to improve health outcomes for older people both at clinical and population level. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN71002650.
Health status and nutritional development of adopted Ethiopian children living in southern Spain: A prospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to evaluate the health status and anthropometrical development of adopted children from Ethiopia living in southern Spain. A second aim was to evaluate the association between these parameters and adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. METHODS: The study sample included 53 adopted children from Ethiopia and a matched sample of 54 native-born children. A physical examination of the children, including height and weight, was conducted in Ethiopia at the time of entry into the adoption process. Height and weight were re-measured at the first day of adoption and 6, 12, and 24 mo after adoption. After 2 y of follow-up, another physical examination was performed, including the KIDMED test, to measure adherence to the Mediterranean diet. RESULTS: Skin and digestive conditions were the most prevalent disorders in Ethiopian children before adoption and at the end of follow-up. Baseline anthropometric characteristics indicated a low wasting prevalence (7.5%); however, stunted growth was more prevalent (35.8%). After 6 mo, the weight-for-age of Ethiopian children was restored (change from baseline P < 0.001), and not significantly different from the Spanish children at 1-y after adoption. Height-for-age also increased from baseline (P < 0.001. A higher KIDMED score was associated with increased weight-for-age (r = 0.279; P = 0.045) and height-for-age (r = 0.385; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study of adopted Ethiopian children confirmed a rapid growth development that occurred from the beginning of the adoption process and continued after the 2-y of follow-up. A higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with better growth development, which reinforces the importance of a balanced and adequate diet in growing children.
Patterns in Weight and Physical Activity Tracking Data Preceding a Stop in Weight Monitoring: Observational Analysis.
BACKGROUND: Self-regulation for weight loss requires regular self-monitoring of weight, but the frequency of weight tracking commonly declines over time. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether it is a decline in weight loss or a drop in motivation to lose weight (using physical activity tracking as a proxy) that may be prompting a stop in weight monitoring. METHODS: We analyzed weight and physical activity data from 1605 Withings Health Mate app users, who had set a weight loss goal and stopped tracking their weight for at least six weeks after a minimum of 16 weeks of continuous tracking. Mixed effects models compared weight change, average daily steps, and physical activity tracking frequency between a 4-week period of continuous tracking and a 4-week period preceding the stop in weight tracking. Additional mixed effects models investigated subsequent changes in physical activity data during 4 weeks of the 6-week long stop in weight tracking. RESULTS: People lost weight during continuous tracking (mean -0.47 kg, SD 1.73) but gained weight preceding the stop in weight tracking (mean 0.25 kg, SD 1.62; difference 0.71 kg; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.81). Average daily steps (beta=-220 daily steps per time period; 95% CI -320 to -120) and physical activity tracking frequency (beta=-3.4 days per time period; 95% CI -3.8 to -3.1) significantly declined from the continuous tracking to the pre-stop period. From pre-stop to post-stop, physical activity tracking frequency further decreased (beta=-6.6 days per time period; 95% CI -7.12 to -6.16), whereas daily step count on the day's activity was measured increased (beta=110 daily steps per time period; 95% CI 50 to 170). CONCLUSIONS: In the weeks before people stop tracking their weight, their physical activity and physical activity monitoring frequency decline. At the same time, weight increases, suggesting that declining motivation for weight control and difficulties with making use of negative weight feedback might explain why people stop tracking their weight. The increase in daily steps but decrease in physical activity tracking frequency post-stop might result from selective measurement of more active days.
Can the Cardiovascular Risk Reductions Observed with Empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial be Explained by Concomitant Changes Seen in Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels?
AIM: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial demonstrated a significant reduction in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes given empagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. We performed post-hoc analyses of this trial examining the degree to which empagliflozin-induced changes in conventional CV risk factors might explain the observed CV benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated three-year EMPA-REG OUTCOME CV event rates using a type 2 diabetes-specific clinical outcomes simulation model applied to annual patient-level data. Variables included were atrial fibrillation, smoking, albuminuria, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c , heart rate, white cell count, haemoglobin, estimated GFR, and prior histories of ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, amputation, blindness, renal failure, stroke, myocardial infarction or diabetic ulcer. Multiple simulations were performed for each participant to minimize uncertainty and optimize confidence interval precision around CV risk point estimates. Observed and simulated cardiovascular relative risk-reductions were compared. RESULTS: Model-predicted relative risk reductions were smaller than those observed in the trial, with empagliflozin-associated changes in conventional CV risk factor values appearing to explain only 12% of the observed relative risk reduction for all-cause death (4% of 32%), 7% for CV death (3% of 39%) and 15% for heart failure (4% of 29%). CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin-associated changes in conventional CV risk factors in EMPA-REG OUTCOME appear to explain only a small proportion of the CV and all-cause death reductions observed. Alternative risk-reduction mechanisms need to be explored to determine if the observed CV risk changes can be explained by other factors, or possibly by a direct drug-specific effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of primary care patients with multi-morbidity.
BACKGROUND: Multi-morbidity in chronic long-term conditions is a major concern for health services. Self-management in concert with clinical care forms part of the effective management of multi-morbidity. Self-efficacy is a mechanism through which self-management can be achieved. Quality of life is adversely impacted by multi-morbidity but could be improved by effective self-management. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life in primary care patients with multi-morbidity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with primary care patients in England. Potential participants were mailed a questionnaire containing quality of life measures (the EQ-5D-5L and the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ)), the Disease Burden Impact Scale (DBIS) and the Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between quality of life (dependent variable), self-efficacy, and demographic and disease-related variables. RESULTS: The 848 participants living with multi-morbidity reported a mean of 6.46 (SD 3.49) chronic long-term conditions, with the mean number of physical conditions 5.99 (SD 3.34) and mental health conditions 0.47 (SD 0.66). The mean scores were 15.45 (SD 12.00) for disease burden, 0.69 (SD 0.28) for the EQ-5D-5L, 65.44 (SD 23.66) for the EQ-VAS, and 69.31 (SD 21.77) for the LTCQ. The mean self-efficacy score was 6.69 (SD 2.53). The regression models were all significant at p < 0.001 (adjusted R2 > 0.70). Significant factors in all models were self-efficacy, disease burden and being permanently sick or disabled. Other factors varied between models, with the most notable being the presence of a mental health condition in the LTCQ model. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-morbid primary care patients with lower self-efficacy and higher disease burden have lower quality of life. Awareness of self-efficacy levels among patients with multi-morbidity may help health professionals identify patients who are in need of enhanced self-management support. Providing self-management support for chronic disease has been hailed as a hallmark of good care. Higher self-efficacy may lead to enhanced quality of life in multi-morbidity.