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New College, in Oxford, was where we hosted an event to celebrate the ways in which public volunteers have worked with CLAHRC Oxford over its first five years.
© The Author(s) 2019. Objective: To provide a synthesis of the current evidence base of online patient feedback using a scoping review and a consultation of stakeholders in England, UK. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Social Science Citation Index and conducted hand searches up to January 2018. We included primary studies of internet-based reviews and other online feedback (e.g. social media and blogs) from patients, carers or the public about health care providers (individuals, services or organizations). Key findings were extracted and tabulated for further synthesis guided by the themes arising from a stakeholder consultation. Results: The review found that awareness and usage of online feedback is increasing. Most feedback is about physicians, and is typically positive. Online reviews and ratings are used by some service users to inform choice of provider or treatment while providers tend to be concerned about the validity and representativeness of feedback. Reviewed studies found that those who post feedback are generally not representative of the general population, tending to be younger and more educated, but online feedback does broadly correlate with some other measures of health care quality. Conclusions: In an increasingly digital society, where citizens provide and use feedback for a range of goods and services, online patient feedback can offer a convenient, low cost and widely accessible mechanism to capture experiences of health care, while being mindful to avoid issues of digital exclusion. This review provides important insights to inform policy development seeking to harness the opportunities offered by online feedback.
Diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of natriuretic peptide screening for the detection of heart failure in the community: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
<ns4:p><ns4:bold>Introduction: </ns4:bold>Patients diagnosed with heart failure in primary care have a better prognosis than those diagnosed in hospital. However, most cases are missed in the community. Recent attention has focussed on the potential of early detection through screening. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are tested by GPs and used to rule out heart failure in patients presenting with symptoms. Evidence is now emerging that they may also have a role in screening but their accuracy in this context and the associated optimal thresholds, have not been established. The impact that NP screening would have on patients and health care systems also remains unclear.</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Methods: </ns4:bold>We aim to undertake a systematic search of the following sources: Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Screening, data extraction and critical appraisal will be carried out independently and in duplicate by two reviewers. We will include studies based in the community with >100 participants that recruited a screened population. We will not add a study design filter and there will be no language restriction. The primary outcome will be the sensitivity and the specificity of NP screening and optimal thresholds for screening will be explored. Outcomes of interest for the impact analysis will include mortality, hospital admissions and cost effectiveness. This protocol has been developed in accordance with guidelines from the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P).</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Discussion: </ns4:bold>This systematic review will identify how accurately NP screen for heart failure in the community and explore where NP screening thresholds should be set. It also aims to summarise the clinical impact of this strategy. Together, these results should inform future interventions that may provide an alternative pathway to facilitate improved detection of heart failure in the community.</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Registration:</ns4:bold> PROSPERO <ns4:ext-link xmlns:ns3="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" ext-link-type="uri" ns3:href="https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=87498">CRD42018087498</ns4:ext-link>; registered on 11 May 2018.</ns4:p>
The NASSS-CAT tools for supporting technology projects in health and social care: co-design of tools and protocol for further testing (Preprint)
<sec> <title>BACKGROUND</title> <p>Health technology projects are typically ambitious and complex. Many fail. Greenhalgh et al’s NASSS (non-adoption, abandonment, scale-up, spread, sustainability) framework was developed to analyse their varied fortunes.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>OBJECTIVE</title> <p>We sought to extend the NASSS framework to produce practical tools for policymakers, project planners, implementation teams and evaluators.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>METHODS</title> <p>Building on NASSS and a complexity assessment tool (CAT), the NASSS-CAT was developed (in different formats) in seven co-design workshops involving 50 stakeholders (industry executives, technical designers, policymakers, managers, clinicians, patients).</p> </sec> <sec> <title>RESULTS</title> <p>The co-design process resulted in four tools, available as free downloads. NASSS-CAT SHORT is a ‘taster’ to introduce the instrument and gauge interest. NASSS-CAT LONG is intended to support reflection, due diligence and preliminary planning. It invites stakeholder discussion across six domains, using free-text open questions (designed to generate a rich narrative and surface uncertainties and interdependencies) and a closed-question checklist for identifying different kinds of complexity; it also includes an action planning section. NASSS-CAT PROJECT is a 35-item instrument for monitoring how complexity in a technology implementation project changes over time. NASSS-CAT INTERVIEW is a set of prompts for conducting semi-structured research or evaluation interviews. Preliminary data from empirical case studies suggest that the NASSS-CAT tools can potentially identify, but cannot always overcome, contradictions and conflicts that block projects’ progress.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>CONCLUSIONS</title> <p>The NASSS-CAT tools, designed to help teams understand, reduce and respond to complexity in their technology implementation projects, are a useful addition to existing tools and frameworks. They are currently being tested prospectively on a sample of case studies selected for variety in conditions, technologies, settings, scope and scale, policy context and project goals. Further support of those projects is ongoing. We plan to establish an online community of practice for people interested in using and improving the NASSS-CAT tools, and hold workshops for building cross-project collaborations.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>CLINICALTRIAL</title> <p>Not applicable</p> </sec>
Self-monitoring of blood pressure in patients with hypertension related multi-morbidity: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis
Background: Studies have shown that self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) is effective when combined with co-interventions, but its efficacy varies in the presence of some co-morbidities. This study examined whether self-monitoring can reduce clinic BP in patients with hypertension-related co-morbidity. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of articles published in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to January 2018. Randomised controlled trials of self-monitoring of BP were selected and individual patient data (IPD) were requested. Contributing studies were prospectively categorised by whether they examined a low/high intensity co-intervention. Change in BP and likelihood of uncontrolled BP at 12-months were examined according to number and type of hypertension-related co-morbidity in a one-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: A total of 22 trials were eligible, 16 of which were able to provide IPD for the primary outcome, including 6,522 (89%) participants with follow-up data. Self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic BP compared to usual care at 12-month follow-up, regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities (-3.12 mmHg, [95%CI -4.78, -1.46 mmHg]; p value for interaction with number of morbidities = 0.260). Intense interventions were more effective than low-intensity interventions in patients with obesity (p<0.001 for all outcomes), and possibly stroke (p<0.004 for BP control outcome only), but this effect was not observed in patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Conclusions: Self-monitoring lowers BP regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities, but may only be effective in conditions such obesity or stroke when combined with high intensity co-interventions.
Tamil Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Pilot Testing of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire.
Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure of symptoms and function in people with upper limb conditions. The objectives of this study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the DASH questionnaire for Tamil population in India and pilot test the questionnaire for feasibility and acceptability. Materials and Methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation process recommended by the developers of the DASH questionnaire was followed. The prefinal Tamil DASH was tested in people with a wide range of upper limb conditions. Acceptability and feasibility was evaluated by patient feedback and the time taken to complete the questionnaire. Results: Around 11 items were adapted to improve the relevance of the questionnaire for Tamil population. Thirty patients were recruited for pilot testing. The prefinal Tamil DASH was found to be relevant and comprehensible to patients (n = 29, Males/Females: 21/8; mean (SD) age: 34 (11.3) years) and feasible to administer. One item "Sexual activities" had more non-respondents (n = 16, 55%). Upon consultation with the developers, an item "Wash and blow dry hair" was further modified and the final Tamil DASH was produced. Conclusion: Evaluation of reliability, validity and responsiveness in a large sample would inform the use of Tamil DASH in clinical and research settings.
How Can National Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Primary Care Be Improved? A Stakeholder Consultation.
Many antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions have been implemented in England, facilitating decreases in antibiotic prescribing. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in antibiotic prescribing across England and some healthcare organizations remain high prescribers of antibiotics. This study aimed to identify ways to improve AMS interventions to further optimize antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England. Stakeholders representing different primary care settings were invited to, and 15 participated in, a focus group or telephone interview to identify ways to improve existing AMS interventions. Forty-five intervention suggestions were generated and 31 were prioritized for inclusion in an online survey. Fifteen stakeholders completed the survey appraising each proposed intervention using the pre-defined APEASE (i.e., Affordability, Practicability, Effectiveness, Acceptability, Safety, and Equity) criteria. The highest-rated nine interventions were prioritized as most promising and feasible, including: quality improvement, multidisciplinary peer learning, appointing AMS leads, auditing individual-level prescribing, developing tools for prescribing audits, improving inductions for new prescribers, ensuring consistent local approaches to antibiotic prescribing, providing online AMS training to all patient-facing staff, and increasing staff time available for AMS work with standardizing AMS-related roles. These prioritized interventions could be incorporated into existing national interventions or developed as stand-alone interventions to help further optimize antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England.
Estimated stroke risk, yield, and number needed to screen for atrial fibrillation detected through single time screening: a multicountry patient-level meta-analysis of 141,220 screened individuals.
BACKGROUND: The precise age distribution and calculated stroke risk of screen-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is not known. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify one treatable new AF case (NNS-Rx) (i.e., Class-1 oral anticoagulation [OAC] treatment recommendation) in each age stratum. If the NNS-Rx is known for each age stratum, precise cost-effectiveness and sensitivity simulations can be performed based on the age distribution of the population/region to be screened. Such calculations are required by national authorities and organisations responsible for health system budgets to determine the best age cutoffs for screening programs and decide whether programs of screening should be funded. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exact yield and calculated stroke-risk profile of screen-detected AF and NNS-Rx in 5-year age strata. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review of Medline, Pubmed, and Embase was performed (January 2007 to February 2018), and AF-SCREEN international collaboration members were contacted to identify additional studies. Twenty-four eligible studies were identified that performed a single time point screen for AF in a general ambulant population, including people ≥65 years. Authors from eligible studies were invited to collaborate and share patient-level data. Statistical analysis was performed using random effects logistic regression for AF detection rate, and Poisson regression modelling for CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Nineteen studies (14 countries from a mix of low- to middle- and high-income countries) collaborated, with 141,220 participants screened and 1,539 new AF cases. Pooled yield of screening was greater in males across all age strata. The age/sex-adjusted detection rate for screen-detected AF in ≥65-year-olds was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.13%-1.82%) and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.31%-0.53%) for <65-year-olds. New AF detection rate increased progressively with age from 0.34% (<60 years) to 2.73% (≥85 years). Neither the choice of screening methodology or device, the geographical region, nor the screening setting influenced the detection rate of AF. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (n = 1,369) increased with age from 1.1 (<60 years) to 3.9 (≥85 years); 72% of ≥65 years had ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. All new AF ≥75 years and 66% between 65 and 74 years had a Class-1 OAC recommendation. The NNS-Rx is 83 for ≥65 years, 926 for 60-64 years; and 1,089 for <60 years. The main limitation of this study is there are insufficient data on sociodemographic variables of the populations and possible ascertainment biases to explain the variance in the samples. CONCLUSIONS: People with screen-detected AF are at elevated calculated stroke risk: above age 65, the majority have a Class-1 OAC recommendation for stroke prevention, and >70% have ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. Our data, based on the largest number of screen-detected AF collected to date, show the precise relationship between yield and estimated stroke risk profile with age, and strong dependence for NNS-RX on the age distribution of the population to be screened: essential information for precise cost-effectiveness calculations.
OBJECTIVES:Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as normal office blood pressure (OBP) and elevated ambulatory (ABP) or home blood pressure (HBP). This study assessed MH identified by each of these two methods. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data in treated and untreated adults from Greece, Finland and UK who had OBP, HBP and 24-h ABP measurements was performed. Dual MH was defined as normal OBP and elevated HBP and ABP, isolated ambulatory MH as normal OBP and HBP and elevated ABP and isolated home MH as normal OBP and ABP and elevated HBP. RESULTS:Of 1971 participants analyzed, 445 (23%) had MH on ABP and/or HBP (age 57.1 ± 10.8 years, men 55%, treated 49%). Among participants with any MH, 215 had dual MH (48%), 132 isolated ambulatory MH (30%) and 98 isolated home MH (22%). Moreover, 55% had high-normal, 35% normal and 10% optimal OBP. In logistic regression analysis isolated ambulatory MH was predicted by younger age (OR 0.35, P < 0.01 per 10 years increase), whereas isolated home MH was predicted by older age (OR 2.05, P < 0.01 per 10 years increase). CONCLUSION:Masked hypertension diagnosed by ABP and not HBP monitoring or the reverse is not uncommon. Age appears to be the most important determinant of isolated ambulatory or home MH, with the former being more common in younger participants and the latter in older ones. Only half of participants with MH have high-normal OBP, whereas the rest have lower levels.